Carlos: Global Trade and Development: The Good, Bad, and Unanticipated 1600-1800

Posted on: January 17th, 2018 by EBHS No Comments

Editors of the Essays in Economic and Business History announce the publication of Ann Carlos’s In Press article forthcoming in the May 2018 printed volume of the journal.

Global Trade and Development: The Good, Bad, and Unanticipated 1600-1800

Ann Carlos

This paper focuses on two aspects of global trade. First, I explore how the growth of long-distance trade affected consumers in different parts of the world—I place particular emphasis upon indigenous consumers in sub-arctic Canada. The expansion of long-distance trade in the aftermath of the voyages of discovery made a large array of new goods available to indigenous peoples in the Americas, thus reducing labor expended in home production. The second aspect discussed is the positive impact of using transferable, limited-liability shares to finance companies and the growth of the capital market.

Galambos: The Entrepreneurial Culture and the Mysteries of Economic Development

Posted on: December 1st, 2017 by EBHS No Comments

Editors of the Essays in Economic and Business History announce the publication of Louis Galambos’s In Press article forthcoming in the May 2018 printed volume of the journal.

The Entrepreneurial Culture and the Mysteries of Economic Development

Louis Galambos

Culture is easy to study but difficult to specify. This essay attempts to pin down this illusive subject by linking it to entrepreneurship—that is to specific efforts to combine land, labor, capital, and knowledge in the creation of economic activity that has some aspect of novelty. Entrepreneurship is important because of its central role in capitalism. Culture is important because it influences the willingness of individuals to take the risk of exploring possibilities for entrepreneurial ventures even though the most of them will be unsuccessful in the long-run. In search of entrepreneurial culture in America around 1800, this paper examimes immigration, agriculture, commerce, and the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in the US. These insights are then employed in an examination of the post-WWII efforts of the World Bank—most of which failed—to promote economic growth in nations that had not yet experienced “modernization.”

Unwritten Rules and Gendered Frames Amongst Probate Appraisers? Evidence from Eighteenth-Century York County, Virginia

Posted on: November 3rd, 2017 by EBHS No Comments

Editors of the Essays in Economic and Business History announce the publication of Wendy Lucas and Noel Campbell’s In Press article forthcoming in the May 2018 printed volume of the journal.

Unwritten Rules and Gendered Frames Amongst Probate Appraisers? Evidence from Eighteenth-Century York County, Virginia

Wendy Lucas and Noel Campbell

This study analyzes inventory appraisals ordered by the county court for those estates undergoing probate in York County, Virginia, between 1700 and 1800 to determine whether local gender-modulated unwritten rules of appraisal or appraisers’ gender-related frames in thought influenced the appraisal process. Regardless of how it occurred, we present evidence that the gender of the decedent, or of others involved in the probate process, statistically influenced appraisals. Although attractive as data sources, researchers have long known that probate materials can be difficult to use. Researchers have rarely written about gender as a source of difficulty, but our results suggest that localized, gender-related behavior by appraisers could further complicate using probate materials to study phenomena ranging from the diffusion of consumer goods or of technology, to the integration of markets, and the growth and distribution of wealth. Most relevantly, our results do not specify a particular data correction precisely because we cannot be sure that we have discovered all, or even the most significant, local, gender-influenced behaviors, nor the variability in these behaviors across time or jurisdictions.